Zipf’s law

Zipf’s law is an empirical law formulated using mathematical statistics. The law is named after the linguist George Kingsley Zipf, who first proposed it.Zipf’s law states that given a large sample of words used, the frequency of any word is inversely proportional to its rank in the frequency table.Thus the most frequent word will occur about twice as often as the second most frequent word, three times as often as the third most frequent word, etc. For example, in one sample of words in the English language, the most frequently occurring word, “the”, accounts for nearly seven percent of all the words (69,971 out of slightly over 1 million). True to Zipf’s Law, the second-place word “of” accounts for slightly over 3.5% of words (36,411 occurrences), followed by “and” (28,852). Only about 135 words are needed to account for half the sample of words in a large sample

Net neutrality

Net neutrality is the principle that Internet service providers treat all data on the Internet equally, and not discriminate or charge differently by user, content, website, platform, application, type of attached equipment, or method of communication. For instance, under these principles, internet service providers are unable to intentionally block, slow down or charge money for specific websites and online content. This is sometimes enforced through government mandate. These regulations can be referred to as “common carrier” regulations. This does not block all abilities that Internet service providers have to impact their customer’s services. Opt-in/opt-out services exist on the end user side, and filtering can be done on a local basis, as in the filtration of sensitive material for minors. Net neutrality regulations exist only to protect against misuse.

A widely cited example of a violation of net neutrality principles was the Internet service provider Comcast’s secret slowing (“throttling”) of uploads from peer-to-peer file sharing (P2P) applications by using forged packets. Comcast did not stop blocking these protocols, like BitTorrent, until the Federal Communications Commission ordered them to stop. In another minor example, the Madison River Communications company was fined US$15,000 by the FCC, in 2004, for restricting their customers’ access to Vonage, which was rivaling their own services. AT&T was also caught limiting access to FaceTime, so only those users who paid for AT&T’s new shared data plans could access the application. In July 2017, Verizon Wireless was accused of throttling after users noticed that videos played on Netflix and YouTube were slower than usual, though Verizon commented that it was conducting “network testing” and that net neutrality rules permit “reasonable network management practices”

Family member names

Today I watched a youtube video about the names of family members . I have made a list so people can know more about these things.

Uncle and Aunt

Your parents’ brothers and sisters, and their spouses. You don’t need any blood connection to be a full-fledged aunt or uncle. Your mother’s sister’s husband is not your uncle by marriage. He’s your uncle, fair and square.

Niece and Nephew

Son and daughter of your siblings and siblings-in-law. As with uncle and aunt, they’re not your nieces and nephews by marriage, they’re your nieces and nephews, plain and simple, even if they’re your spouse’s siblings’ kids and don’t have a single drop of blood in common with you.

First Cousin, Full Cousin, Cousin-German

Children of your parents’ brothers and sisters. You and your first cousins share one set of grandparents.

Double First Cousins

If a pair of brothers marries a pair of sisters, their kids are not only first cousins, they’re double first cousins: They have both sets of grandparents in common.

Second Cousins

You and the children of your parents’ cousins are second cousins and share at least one great-grandparent. Your child and your cousin’s child are second cousins.

Third Cousins

You and the children of your parents’ second cousins are third cousins and share at least one great-great-grandparent. And so on with the fourth, fifth, and sixth cousins.

First Cousin Once Removed

A relationship that is removed is one that exists in two different genealogical generations. Generation refers to the order of birth, a genealogical level. Your aunt and your mother may have been born 20 years apart, but they are still of the same generation. Your parent’s first cousin is your first cousin once removed. The child of your first cousin is also your first cousin once removed: your grandparent is that child’s great-grandparent. You can do the whole “removed” thing for every category of cousins—second cousin once removed, and so on. But by then you’ll probably drive everyone completely crazy.

Grandaunt and Granduncle

We always called grandpa’s sister “great-aunt.” But the experts say that terminology is incorrect, and the terms above should be used instead to refer to the siblings of your grandparents.

Great-Grandaunts and Great-Granduncles

Your great-grandparents’ brothers and sisters.


Family by marriage: Your spouse’s parents, spouses of your siblings, and spouses of your spouse’s siblings. That is, your brother’s wife is an in-law, but none of her siblings are. And your husband’s sister’s husband is your in-law, but none of his brothers are. And in-laws pretty much stop with your parents-in-law and your siblings-in-law. You are not in-laws with the parents of your sister-in-law’s husband. And the two sets of parents of a couple are not in-laws to each other either; they are the competitive parents—an entirely different category.



Today I watched a YouTube video called “ Doodling in Math Class: Squiggle Inception ” . This video is about drawing squiggles using squiggles . I like it because this video is about math and art , both of which are things I like . The creator of the video is Vi Hart who is a self-described ” recreational mathemusician ” . In the video she talks about Hilbert’ s curve and a fractal squiggle she made up . One funny quote from the video is “ Upasquiggle downasquiggle upasquiggle down WOOP! “ .

July 8th 2018

eiffel tower

On July 8th I went to the Nepean-Centerpointe library for the 3d printers there. I wanted to use the 3d printers because I am currently working on a project that involves 3d printing . When I was there , I saw that they had an event involving a green screen so I immediately went there . They took my picture and I chose to make it look like I was in Paris at the Eiffel tower .

Second run of kittens game

Currently , I am on my second run of the game “ A Kittens Game ” . This game is about controlling a civilization of cats as they learn new things with science and unlock things like hunting , religion , space exploration ( Rocket Cats ! ) , and cryptocurrencies . So far I am at year 7940 which means that this run has taken me around 70 days . On this run , my goal is to get my cat civilization into space . I want to get the cats to space because I want them to go to the moon and mine for unobtainium .


I need the unobtainium to get a science called Metaphysics which lets you buy upgrades that lower the costs of the different items in the game or increase your production . However , the base on the moon that mines unobtainium requires uranium to function . I do not have a way to get uranium currently so I will have to go to yet another planet to mine the uranium . Another problem right now is that I have not unlocked rockets yet . That requires a technology called Rocketry which needs 175 thousand science points and 125 blueprints .


One of the reasons why I like this game is because it has a lot of content . For example , here are some of the different technologies : Calendar , Agriculture , Archery , Animal Husbandry , Mining , Metal Working , Mathematics , Construction , Civil Service , Engineering , Currency , Theology , Astronomy , Navigation , Architecture , Physics , Metaphysics , and Chemistry . The kittens also have a religion and there you can buy upgrades with faith and gold , sacrifice unicorns and alicorns to get some unicorn tears and time crystals respectively .

Let me tell you how I got to this point . In the beginning , there is only a button marked “ gather catnip ” . Once I collected 10 catnip you can buy a catnip field which generates 0.625 catnip per second . When I had 100 catnip , I clicked the “ refine catnip “ button which gave me one wood in exchange for every 100 catnip I had . 4 more wood later , I got a hut which houses 2 kittens . After that , a new tab opens where I can assign the kittens as woodcutters . For 25 wood I bought a library which unlocks the scholar job . Then I reassigned one of my woodcutters as scholars and it produced science points which allowed me to research agriculture . Agriculture allows a kitten to have the job of farmer . The farmer cats start out only able to produce 5 catnip per second . But later in the game , they will produce a lot more catnip each ( I had farmer kittens that produced 300 catnip each ) . After that , for 300 science , I got Archery which allowed me to assign hunter kittens . These kittens produce catpower which can be used to send them on hunting missions . Hunting missions give furs and sometimes ivory . Then , for 500 science , I got Mining which allowed me to build mines . When I built my first mine , the kittens could be assigned to the job “ Mining “ . Mining kittens mine 0.25 minerals per second . Animal husbandry is next for 500 science and unlocks Mathematics ( 1000 science ) , construction ( 1300 science ) , Civil service ( 1500 science ) , and pastures .Then I got metal working for 900 science . Metal working allowed me to have smelters which produce iron in exchange for wood and minerals . Also , you should buy as many huts as possible . Once I got Mathematics I bought academies which give 500 extra storage for science . Then I got construction for 1300 science .